(continued from page 1)

The Roman Catholic church operated in the same places at the same time.  The Pope was happy to decree that God was omnipotent and had absolute dominion over all real estate and people world-wide.  But God, being a concept more than an entity who could sign leases and death warrants, delegated most if not all his power to the various kings to the extent of their kingdoms.

Kings owed their position to petty kings.  Petty kings became lords to whom kings were forced to cede the various swaths of land that formed the extent of the kingdom.  Everyone except kings and lords were tied to the large estates of the lords.  Kings delegated God's dominion over people to the lords because people were tenants and slaves rather than free and independent humans.

Because royalty intermarried and inbred to create a small and dominant class of royals, kings quickly devolved into leaders who came from somewhere else mentally, if not physically, and couldn't care less about the best interests of common people and even of the lords of the nation.  The interests of the lords were not the same as the interests of their vassals and slaves.  Lords combined forces to bring kings to their knees.  They forced kings to concede their only remaining power.  It was the power to tax.  The common people didn't have any assets to tax.  They had no land their produce belonged to the lord, or they leased land and their produce paid their rent to the lord.  Kings levied taxes on lords to maintain a substantial bank account.  When lords rebelled, kings signed off on compacts that created Parliaments in which lords would meet and vote a king's wish list up or down.

Every lord had a seat in the House of Lords in the English Parliament.  It was the only house of the legislature for a long time.  Thus, representation or consent for royal taxes was by the individuals to be taxed.  A majority of them was needed to pass the proposal into law.  99% of the people who produced the capital to pay the taxes had 0% say in the matter.

Kings established municipalities to collect taxes from the surrounding area.  A municipal charter described the boundary of a grant of land and created a city council with the power of lords over the land grant.  Council members could agree to divide and lease the land to professionals who knew how to convert produce to liquid assets and to the tradesmen who had a role in the conversions and also provided manufactured goods to the professionals, to the lords, to the monarch, and even to some of the common people, most of whom had to be mostly self-sufficient.

Colonization of the Americas and other continents led to a dramatic increase in the wealth of Europe.  A middle class developed through the device of municipalities and because of taxation.  The middle class felt taxation at closer range than the common people.  The lords, feeling a need to be consistent with the principle of taxation with representation for their own sake if not for the sake of others, created the House of Commons and invited city councils to send one of their own to come to London and and audit the proceedings of the House of Lords.  Councilmen could offer their opinions, but they couldn't vote a tax bill up or down.  They didn't really have representation regarding taxation.  They were also not common people and some of them were richer than lords because they were paid substantial fees for managing tax revenues and liquid assets.  In this way, British lords, bankers and merchants dragged the word representation through muddy water.  When they wrung it out and hung it up to dry, it meant something entirely different than it meant at the creation of Parliament.

To make accurate definitions worse, education was limited to the upper classes.  Their teachers in parochial and private schools (known as public schools) forced the sons of the rich to worship and replicate the practices, as well as the aesthetics of the republics of ancient Greece and Rome.  Members of the upper class of the old republics were known as patricians rather than nobles and royals. Almost all other people were their slaves.  In the ancient republics only patricians could vote, yet they dared to call what they did democracy.  They didn't have a government of, by and for the people.  They had a government of, by and for themselves. 

Whenever you get to a place in the historical papers of the United States where you expect to see the word democracy and might actually think you are reading the word democracy, you will see and read the word republic instead. Republic isn't the same as democracy.  Democracy is government of, by and for all the people because, hopefully, all the people are free, independent and have a bit of real estate to call their own.  A republic is government of, by and for the small segment of the population that is educated and rich and claims title to all the land.  Patricians manage republics to maintain and increase their power and wealth.

Wherever you see the palaces of US government, you see the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.  Be thankful that--because you've been relieved of a lot of your money to pay for them--you can at least save the cost of travel abroad to gaze at the ruins.  Some of the US founders who commissioned designs, contracted for construction, and set the fashion trend were patrician wannabees.  The remainder put a valuable clue in your face.  Don't let fraudulent definitions fool you.

If every individual lord had a say in whether or not he'd pay taxes and how much, so do you, as an individual.  That's what representation meant before the revolution and that's what it means after..

(continued on page 3)

time for


top illustration:

Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green (artist). 

Woman seated near man with spectacles pointing at document.

in Janvier, Thomas A. (author).

The Recrudescence of Madame Vic.

Harper's magazine 112:513 (1906 March).

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, DC, USA

Card #cai1996001516/PP

Digital file 2a12983

Materials are presented for educational purposes only.

I'm not a licensed attorney and  don't intend the materials presented here

to replace the services of licensed attorneys

I work alone on a small, fixed personal  income.  If you appreciate my work,

take advantage of it, and are able, please make a financial contribution.

Laurel Lee

Time For Democracy

Box 477235

1704 N. Milwaukee

Chicago, IL  60647-7235

updated 2015 September


practical applications



The website is a work in progress.

All texts are drafts.

The author takes it for granted that

you can say the same things better, and will.